In Colonial New York, there were many different types of birds. And today, the Northern Cardinal is still abundant across the eastern United States from Maine to Texas and in Canada in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Its range extends west to the U.S.-Mexico border and south through Mexico to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, northern Guatemala, and northernBelize. It was introduced to Bermuda in 1700. It has also been introduced in Hawaii and southern California. Its natural habitat is woodlands, gardens, shrublands, and swamps. This bird is a permanent resident throughout its range, although it may relocate to avoid extreme weather or if food is scarce.